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同济大学博士研究生入学英语考试样题

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    I Vocabulary (10%)For each of the following sentences there are four choices. Choose the best one to complete the sentence.1. The directions were so ____ that it was impossible to complete the assignment. A) ingenious B) ambitious C) notorious D) ambiguous 2. Our ________ host always enjoys having friends to share his Lucullan suppers. A) cursive B)martial C) fractious D) convivial 3. Recently a number of cases have been reported of young children ____a violent act previously seen on television. A) modifying B) stimulating C) accelerating D) duplicating 4. This kind of material can _____heat and moisture. A) delete B) compel C) repel D) constrain 5. The damage to his car was ____; therefore, he could repair it himself. A) considerable B) appreciable C) negligible D) invisible 6. The ____of a cultural phenomenon is usually a logical consequence of some physical aspect in the life style of the people. A) implementation B) expedition C) demonstration D) manifestation 7. One of the responsibilities of the Coast guard is to make sure that all ships _______ follow traffic rules in busy harbors.A) cautiously B) dutifully C) faithfully D) skillfully 8. The Eskimo is perhaps one of the most trusting and considerate of all Indians but seems to be _______ the welfare of his animals.A) critical about B) indignant at C) indifferent to D) subject to 9. The chairman of the board _______ on me the unpleasant job of dismissing good workers the firm can no longer afford to employ.A) compelled B) posed C) pressed D) tempted10. Using extremely different decorating schemes in adjoining rooms may result in _______ and lack of unity in style.A) conflict B) confrontation C) disturbance D) disharmony 11. Corrupt politicians who condone the activities of the gamblers are equally _______.A) cryptic B)esoteric C)culpable D)occult12. I don’t know the details for I just gave your manuscript only a(n) _______ glance.A) cursory B)cumbrous C)onerous D)obscure13.the Red Cross society helped _________ families to survive the war in the Persian Gulf.A) demure B)destitute C)assiduous D)sedate14. the man felt ________ when the girl turned down his proposal of marriage.A) despondent B) fabulous C)dilapidated D)fortuitous 15. the boy gave a ______ look at his classmate’s test paper when the teacher turned.A) frivolous B)furtive C)frenetic D)frigid 16. Rubber boots are ___________ to water.A) imperious B)impetuous C)impervious D)impeccable 17. Missiles were mounted at various points to _______ the enemy aircrafts.A) integrate B)jeopardize C)intercept D)interrogate18. Being careless, she had her arm _____ by the barbed wire.A) lacerated B)lamented C)juggled D)bemoaned 19. The wrestler’s _______ maneuvers made it difficult for his opponent to obtain a hold.A) hermetic B)protean C)titanic D)procrustean20. Psychoanalysis can help a patient recall long-forgotten experiences lost in the ______ recess of his mind.A) labyrinthine B)chimerical C)iridescent D)mercurial II Reading Comprehension (50%)Passage 1There is widespread belief that the emergence of giant industries has been accomplished by an equivalent surge in industrial research. A recent study of important inventions made since the turn of the century reveals that more than half were the product of individual invent-ors working alone, independent of organized industrial research. While industrial laboratories contributed such important products as nylon and transistors, independent inventors developed air conditioning, the automatic transmission, the jet engine, the helicopterminsulin, and streptomycin. Still other inventions, such as stainless steel, television, silicons, and plexiglass were developed through the combined efforts of individuals and laboratory teams. Despite these findings, we are urged to support monopoly power on the grounds that such power creates an environment supportive of innovation. We are told that the independent inventor, along with the small firm, cannot afford to undertake the important research needed to improve our standard of living while protecting our diminishing resources; that only the prodigious assets of the giant corporation or conglomerate can afford the kind of expenditures that can produce the technological advances vital to economic progress. But when we examine expenditures for research, we find that of the more than $ 35 billion spent each year in this country, almost two-thirds is spent by the federal government. More than half of this government expenditure is funneled into military research and product development, accounting for the enormous increase in spending in such industries as nuclear energy, aircraft, missiles, and electronics. There are those who consider it questionable that these defense-linked research projects will account for an improvement in the standard of living or, alternately, do much to protect our diminishing resources. Recent history has demonstrated that we may have to alter our longstanding conception of the process actuated by competition. The price variable, once perceived as the dominant aspect of the competitive process is now subordinate to the competition of the new product, the new business structure, and the new technology. While it can be assumed that in a highly competitive industry not dominated by a single corporation, investment in innovation--a risky and expensive budget item--might meet resistance from management and stockholders who might be more concerned with cost-cutting, efficient organization, and large advertising budgets, it would be an egregious error to assume that the monopolistic producer should be equated with bountiful expenditures for research. Large-scale enterprises tend to operate more comfortably in stable and secure circumstances, and their managerial bureaucracies tend to promote the status quo and resist the threat implicit in change. Furthermore, the firm with a small share of the market will aggressively pursue new techniques and different products, since with little vested interest in capital equipment or plant it is not deterred from in-vestment in innovation. In some cases, where inter-industry competition is reduced or even entirely eliminated, the industrial giants may seek to avoid capital loss resulting from obsolescence by deliberately obstructing technological progress. The conglomerates are not, however, completely exempt from strong competitive pressures; there are instances in which they, too, must compete, as against another industrial Goliath, and then their weapons may include large expenditures for innovation.16. According to the passage, important inventions of the twentieth century ________.A. are not necessarily produced as a result of governmental support for military weapons research and development.B. came primarily from the huge laboratories of monopoly industries.C. were produced at least as frequently by independent inventors as by research teams.D. have greater impact on smaller firms than on conglomerates.17. It is the author.

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