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博士生入学考试英语辅导资料

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    四大解题要决: 语义连接法;逻辑关系对应分析法;同义复现法;褒贬一致法

   (一) 语义连接法 1. 表示时间关系:meantime, meanwhile, when, after then…,时间状语例:Last summer I took a job as a waitress. My motives at the time were purely ulterior: I had been attracted by local fables of the generous tips left by tourists … My routine was the regular one:take orders,carry food, …. During that first week, I could only stumble home after a day’s work and fall in bed. Even when I had become accustomed to the routine, I never had any trouble …. By the end of the summer, I had firmly resolved … 2. 表示空间关系:up, down, inside, over, beyond…用于描写自然环境,地形地貌,房屋布置,物体构造的语篇。例: It was the green heart of the canyon,… Here all things rested. Even the narrow … On one side, beginning at the…was a tiny meadow….Beyond the pool a gentle slope of earth ran up and up…. Below, the canyon was shut in.There was no view…. Up the canyon rose far hills and peaks…. And far beyond,like clouds upon the border of the sky,… 3. 表示例举和顺序:first(ly), second(ly), third(ly)…; one, two, three…(学术论文和科技文章);for one thing…(and) for another (thing); for a start (非正式);to begin with, to start with; in the first place, in the second place; next, then; finally, eventually, last, lastly; to conclude… 4.表示意义增进和引申: again, also, furthermore, moreover, then, in addition, above all, what is more… 例: You should not trust advertisements. Look at the products themselves…. Talk to your friends…Read about product research… And then you will …. Above all, don’t buy a product because an advertisement says that a famous football player or a movie star likes it. 5. 表示转折和对比:but, however, nevertheless, still, though, yet, in any case, at any rate, in spite of that, after all, instead, then, on the contrary, by way of contrast, conversely, by way of comparison, on the other hand… 6. 表示等同和替换:equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way; namely, in other words, that is, that is to say; better, rather, alternatively, on the other hand;(or) again, (even) better, worse (still)… 例:He may be late. Worse still, he may not come at all. Would you like to have a meeting about the matter this afternoon? Alternatively, we could discuss it at dinner. 7. 表示过渡和总结:incidentally, now, by the way; altogether, overall, all in all, in all, in brief, in conclusion, in short, to conclude, to sum up… 例:Norway welcomes children, and here, as usually elsewhere, there is 70% reduction for those up to three…You are half-price, incidentally, until you are 15 on Norwegian trains and most buses and steamers. 8. 表示结果和推论:as a result, accordingly, consequently, as a (in) consequence, for this /that reason, on that account, in that case, so, hence, therefore, then, thus; accordingly; else, otherwise… 例:The factory was burned down last night; on that account many workmen were thrown out of employment. To meet the needs of the new situation, agriculture had to undergo a drastic change – that was indisputable; else (=if not, otherwise) the country would have starved. 真题示例(2001)When we think about addiction to drugs or alcohol, we frequently focus on negative aspects, ignoring the pleasures that accompany drinking or drug-taking. 46 the essence of any serious addiction is a pursuit of pleasure, a search for a “high” … 46. A. Hence B. Because C. And yet D. moreover (2002/3) …Women have moved into the world of work and have become adept at meeting expectations in that arena, 48 maintaining their family roles of nurturing and creating …. 48. A. by B. while C. hence D. thus (2000) … Explosive population growth 49 a torrent of migration from the countryside are creating cities that dwarf the great capitals of the past. 49. A. of B. like C. and D. or (1996) If the trajectory is in fact pursued, industrial growth will 53 have to come to an immediate halt,… 53. A. rather B. hardly C. then D. hence (1998) … The puritans, 48 they were called, had much to be thankful 49 . 48. A. since B. like C. for D. as

    (二)逻辑关系对应分析法 1. 并列关系同义词解法 2. 对立关系反义词解法 3. 总—分式解法 4. 分—总式解法 真题示例 (2001) A heroin addict, for instance, leads a 59 life, his increasing need for heroin in increasing doses prevents him from working, from maintaining relationships, from developing in human ways. 60 an alcoholic’s life is narrowed and dehumanized by his dependence on alcohol. 60. A. Similarly B. Conversely C. Naturally D. Generally

    (三)同义反复法同义词的重复表强调近义词的运用表递进相关词的搭配表衔接真题示例 (1999) Gradually, without seeing it clearly for quite a while, I came to realize that something is very wrong with the way American women are trying to live their lives today. I sensed it first as a 46 mark in my own life, as 47 wife and mother of three small children, half-guilty, and therefore half-heartedly using my abilities and education in work that took me 48 home. It was this personal question mark that let me to spend a great deal of time doing … 46. A. question B. dark C. significant D. quotation (2002/3) At least since the Industrial Revolution, gender roles have been in a state of transition. As a result, cultural scripts about marriage have undergone change. One of the more obvious 46 has occurred in the roles that women 47 … 46. A. incidents B. changes C.results D.effects (2002/10) Assuming that a constant travel-time budget, geographic constraints and short-term infrastructure constraints persist as fundamental features of global mobility, what long-term results can one expect? … In several developing regions, most travel 50 in 2050 will be devoted to non-motorized modes. Buses will persist 51 the primary form of motorized transportation in developing countries for decades. 51.A. to B. as C. with D. over (2002/10)52 important air travel becomes, buses, automobiles and 53 low-speed trains will surely go on serving vital functions. 54 of the super-rich already commute and shop in aircraft, but average people will continue to spend most of their travel time on the 55 . 55. A.mountain B.ground C.sky D.land

    (四)褒贬一致法作者的褒贬观段落中的褒贬观句群中的褒贬观真题示例 (2000) Is the trend good or bad? Can the cities cope? No one knows 55 . Without question, urbanization has produced 56 so ghastly that they are difficult to comprehend. 56. A. miracles B. miseries C. mysteries D. misunderstandings in droves: 一大群,成群结队地 Tourists come in droves to see the giant panda. 成群结队的游客前来观赏大熊猫。 dwarf: v. 使矮小,使显得矮小 The new building dwarfs all the other buildings in the town. 新大楼使城里所有其他建筑物都显得矮小了。

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